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ZOJ Problem Set - 3551

Time Limit: 2 Seconds      Memory Limit: 65536 KB

In 0th day, there are n-1 people and 1 bloodsucker. Every day, two and only two of them meet. Nothing will happen if they are of the same species, that is, a people meets a people or a bloodsucker meets a bloodsucker. Otherwise, people may be transformed into bloodsucker with probability p. Sooner or later(D days), all people will be turned into bloodsucker. Calculate the mathematical expectation of D.


The number of test cases (T, T ≤ 100) is given in the first line of the input. Each case consists of an integer n and a float number p (1 ≤ n < 100000, 0 < p ≤ 1, accurate to 3 digits after decimal point), separated by spaces.


For each case, you should output the expectation(3 digits after the decimal point) in a single line.

Sample Input

2 1

Sample Output


Author: WU, Yingxin
Contest: ZOJ Monthly, October 2011
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